Southern Civil War Muskets
Confederate M1840 Rifle
The M1840 St. Etienne was converted
to a rifle in 1847. For rifle use with ling range sight.
It is speculated that a number
of these converted rifles made it to the South during the Civil War.
1861 RICHMOND RIFLE-MUSKET.
Cal. 58. NSN.
Utilizing 1855 Rifle Musket parts taken from
the Harpers Ferry Arsenal, the Confederacy manufactured this long arm at
the Richmond Armory in Richmond, VA. Similar in design to the 1861 Springfield,
the Richmond Musket utilized a different rear sight, brass buttplate and
a brass forend cap. Total produced unknown. 40" round 58 caliber
rifled barrel with cleanout screw on bolster. Front sight doubles as lug
for angular bayonet. Two leaf rear sight. Three barrel bands retained with
barrel band retaining springs. Iron ramrod with tulip shaped end. Iron
mountings with brass buttplate and forend cap. Early production muskets
used a lockplate with a distinctive full humpback design. Later production
muskets used a lockplate with a lower humpback design. Metal parts finished
bright except for the lock, which was casehardened. Walnut stock. The lockplates
were made from forgings and dies that were intended to use the Maynard
tape primer used on the U.S. Model 1855 rifled musket. The unused Maynard
system caused the distinctive "humpback" design. The Richmond Armory Percussion
Rifled-Musket was produced in larger numbers than all other Confederate
Cal. 58. NSN. 30” bbl, 46” overall length.
There is a lot of controversy over this particular
configuration. Articles have been written that 30” bbl do not exist as
Confederate usage, but they do turn up, though probably not made during
the Civil War, but as postwar configurations for militia or commercial
use. Generally, stocks associated with these guns are not Richmond, as
is with this gun. However, this gun does have a correct brass Richmond
butt-plate and nose cap. Gun has two iron bands, and an iron trigger-guard
w/ two iron slings. Attached to slings is an orig linen sling often attributed
to the Confederacy. Lock is genuine Richmond lock-plate, “C.S. / RICHMOND”
forward of hammer. Rear of hammer lock is dated 1863.
TYPE II 1862 DATE FAYETTEVILLE RIFLE
There were probably no more than a couple
of hundred made. They were very early production and the most distinguishing
feature is the Richmond style low hump lock and hammer. When Fayetteville
first began production, they had trouble getting their lock making capacity
up to speed. The first locks were provided by the Richmond Arsenal
and stamped at Fayetteville. Unlike the Type I, which is largely
made up of left over Harper's Ferry parts, including barrels, stocks, etc.,
the Type II is largely made of Fayetteville produced parts and will generally
show signs of using some minor Harper's Ferry parts, ie. nose caps, hammers,
Fayetteville Type III Rifle
The Fayetteville Arsenal was operated by
70 former employees of the Harpers Ferry Arsenal until its complete destruction
by Sherman's Army in 1865. Fayetteville was plagued by lack of barrel
stock throughout production but in spite of the supply problems, they managed
to produce a high quality rifle with fit and finish that was equal to any
rifle produced by the U.S. at the time. Total production is estimated
between 8000 to 9500 weapons produced from 1862 to 1865 with slightly more
than half believed to be the Type IV.
& BROTHERS MUSKETOON
& Brothers 2 Band Rifle
Cook n'Brothers is a Southern copy of an
Enfield musketoon. Manufactured in Athens, GA
Sharpshooter CSA Rifle
COLUMBUS ARMORY CARBINE.
Cal. .58 SN 19.
This is among the rarest of all Confederate carbines; and is one of
only two known marked examples. John Murphy in his definitive reference,
“Confederate Carbines and Musketoons”, shows a nearly identical weapon
and states it is the only specimen known. This makes the second specimen
known as this gun was unknown to Murphy prior to his passing. Bbl is 24”
long; gun is 39-1/4” long overall. Bbl is marked near breech, “PRO. / FCH”.
Bottom of bbl has a single digit, either a “3” or “5”, stamped near the
breech. Bbl is retained by two brass bands; both rear and front bands are
spring retained, with the front being a double-strap band. Lock-plate is
stamped forward of the hammer, “COLUMBUS ARMORY” identically to excavated
lock SN 7 illustrated in Murphy’s book, as is the other complete gun. Internally
this lock and hammer are both numbered “19”. No other SNs were found on
this gun. This is your only chance to ever buy a Columbus Armory marked
carbine; as the only other example now resides in the Greensboro Public
It has superb wood with sharp checkering, about
95% of the original blue on the barrel, liberal traces of case color on
the lock, butt plate, nose cap, etc. The lockplate, hammer, trigger
guard, breech, etc. are beautifully and delicately engraved. The
bore is bright and sharp as a tack. This gun is very unusual in that
it has a 28 inch barrel and was originally made in this configuration.
It has not been shortened. Thomas Turner produced .451 rifles made
their way to the United States during the Civil War. Some were probably
even used by the South. He was a competitor of Whitworth and about
the best gunsmith England produced during the 1860's.
Target Rifle made by Thomas Turner of Birmingham,
Barnett had a contract to supply guns to the
South and this one sure looks like it was there. It is a gorgeous,
untouched gun has a nice original brown patina with no significant pitting.
The wood is solid, sound with only minor dents and abrasions and appears
to retain its original finish, which is developing a light rub. The
lock is marked Barnett London, in front of the hammer. Behind the
hammer, it is marked Crown over Tower. The left rear of the barrel
has London proofing. It has a 21" barrel and its original rod, missing
the links. There is a mark on the left side of the stock, opposite
the lockplate, which is either the stock maker's mark or an inspectors
mark. The name is J. Crocker. It still has rifling with three
broad lands and grooves and is in .57 caliber. The carbine bar and
ring are intact.
BARNETT P56 CAVALRY CARBINE Commercial
P58 Barnett Carbine Here
At the beginning of the Civil War, Mobile and
its shipping facilities were guarded by Alabama State Troops. These
state troops were eventually turned over to Confederate central government
command. A part of the deal for the turnover was that the State of
Alabama would arm two regiments that had shown up in Mobile without arms
(the 21st & 22nd Alabama Infantries). To arm these units, the
Adjutant General of the State of Alabama beefed up the facilities at the
Mobile Depot, which ingeniously adapted single and double barreled shotguns
for military use. The guns were the result of an earlier effort by
the Governor of Alabama to procure arms. He had authorized the sheriffs
of the various counties and state agents to purchase all available sporting
weapons throughout the state. The guns that were altered at the Mobile
Depot are drawn from these state stores that were so purchased. The
Mobile Depot applied a 5" double lug bayonet attachment to the right side
of both single barrel and double barrel shotguns. They manufactured
a bayonet of this double lug system and scabbard to fit the shotgun.
Confederate Mobile Depot Alteration Shotgun
DAVIS & BOZEMAN CARBINE.
Cal. 58. SN 67 (SN found inside lock).
There are two types of Davis & Bozeman Carbines. One
has standard carbine features. The other type made from rejected rifle
bbls, but otherwise has standard carbine characteristics. This gun was
made from a rejected rifle bbl, and is almost identical to another Davis
& Bozeman Carbine SN 268 pictured in John Murphy’s definitive reference,
Confederate Carbines and Musketoons. Bbl is 24-1/16”. Gun is 39-3/4” long
overall. Bbl is rifled with three lands and grooves. Left side of the bbl
near the breech is stamped, “ALA 1864”. Bbl exhibits fixed slotted front
& rear sight. Bottom of bbl & breech tang have Roman numeral “LVIII”,
cut into each. A large number “44” is also stamped on bottom of bbl near
breech. Bbl is retained by two brass bands, the rear being spring retained;
the front is pin retained and retains an iron sling swivel. Lock is marked
forward of the hammer “D&B / Ala”. Rear of hammer is marked, “1864”.
Trigger-guard is brass 2-pc construction and retains orig iron sling swivel.
Brass butt-plate has a small “s” stamped on top. Ramrod is iron with tulip
shaped end. This is a very rare gun. No doubt there are fewer than ten
Davis & Bozeman Carbines of any configuration. We know of only five
examples and at least 3 of these are in museums. This is a fine example
of this gun and another example may never be offered again.
BILHARZ AND HALL CONFEDERATE MUZZLE LOADING CARBINE.
Cal. .58 SN 57.
Two varieties of the BilHarz & Hall Carbine exist; one
with a brass nose cap, and one with a pewter nose cap. Earlier guns with
lower SNs such as this have brass nose caps. These carbines closely resemble
model 1855 Springfield carbines. Bbl on this gun measures 22-1/8” and overall
37-5/8”. Top left side of bbl near the breech is marked, “CSA / P”. Bottom
of bbl is stamped ”D 57”. The “7” is distinct. First number is hard to
read due to pitting and is possibly a “3”. Bbl ramrod assembly is attached
with a swivel. Iron butt-plate and trigger-guard are nearly identical to
the model 1855 Springfield. Iron lock-plate is internally marked with a
“D 37” and a “D 34”. This gun appears to be all orig and authentic.
& WATSON MUZZLE-LOADING RIFLE.
Cal. 52. NSN.
This gun was made in Danville, Virginia by Read & Watson.
Read & Watson converted breech loading Hall carbines to muzzle-loaders.
This well made gun exhibits a 32-1/2” bbl and is 48-1/2” overall length.
Read & Watson’s alteration required replacement of the orig Hall breech
block with a 1-pc brass breech which had a iron breech plug into which
a percussion cone was placed. Stock is totally of Read & Watson’s design
and construction. Two types of Read & Watson are known, the only difference
is the size of the brass breech or receiver. Stock is pieced under middle
band which is a typical feature of this gun. SNs for these guns are internal.
Gun was not taken apart to ascertain number. This gun appears orig and
authentic in all major parts and components. Externally the gun is totally
unmarked with exception of a latter owner of guns initials and date of
1873. This is a very good example of a scarcely offered Confederate gun.
COFER AGENT MARKED RIFLE. NSN
. T.W. Cofer of Portsmouth, VA was a well-known Confederate
gun dealer and manufacturer of one of the most famous Confederate revolvers.
He also imported guns in his shop before the war. Gun listed here is a
back action lock small cal. oct bbl rifle with “T.W. Cofer & Co.” etched
on lock. “Portsmouth, VA” is stamped in a sgl die on barrel flat behind
rear sight. Gun exhibits 31-1/4” bbl with 48” overall length. Mountings
are all iron with exception of a later added German silver squirrel partially
inlaid into left side of butt-stock in cheek piece. Only a couple ofhtese
are known ro exist.
CONFEDERATE DIXON, NELSON, AND CO. RIFLE.
Cal. 58. NSN.
Bbl 33” 48-3/4” overall. Bbl retained by two brass bands
and brass nose cap. Gun has brass butt-plate, brass trigger-guard, and
iron tulip tipped ramrod. Bbl has no external markings but two cryptic
letter markings on bottom of bbl. Lock is marked forward of hammer, “DIXON/NELSON
& CO / C.S”. Rear of hammer is marked, “ALA / 1864.
CONFEDERATE MENDENHALL, JONES & GARDNER RIFLE.
Cal. 58. SN 833.
32-1/2” bbl is marked “NC/P” approx. 1” behind fixed iron
rear sight, brass blade front sight and iron bayonet lug with small #8
stamped. Correct straight iron butt plate and brass trigger guard, bands
and nose cap. Trumpet end iron ramrod is cut a bit short and is not threaded.
Lockplate is marked rear of hammer “C. S.” and forward of hammer “M. J.
& G./NC”. Three initials, “CMF” are carved upside down in butt stock
on right side, probably denoting soldier who carried this scarce Confederate
rifle. Opposite lock, in wood, is “M. J. & G.” cartouche, though it
is only partially discernable. The bayonet lug appears to have been moved
back about ½”, while the old slot is still visible, but this appears
orig to use. SN 833 appears on inside lockplate and bottom of bbl tang.
Bbl bands are both marked with “U” on top. This is a good example of a
scarce gun in above average condition for pattern.
J.P. MURRAY CONFEDERATE RIFLE,
MADE IN COLUMBUS, GEORGIA.
The first model Murray's produced (Type I) was very closely
copied from US M1841 "Mississippi Rifle", which was so successfully employed
by Jefferson Davis's men in the Mexican War. It was a rifle well loved
& familiar to Southerners, & very serviceable. All Murray's were
.58 cal., however, rather than the .54 cal. Mississippi's. Type I's have
spring retained brass barrel bands, w/front band being of double strap
variety as seen on many earlier US muskets. Flat rear band has a forward
sideplate, which accommodates the lockplate screws, rather than individual
escutcheons holding such screws; this is M1841 style also. Type II Murray
rifle shows a change in brass barrel bands & sideplates. Type II rifles
& carbines have US M1855-style flat brass barrel bands, single, &
w/out forward projecting bottom lip. They have individual brass escutcheons
which accommodate lockplate bolts.