Southern Civil War Muskets

French Confederate M1840 Rifle

The M1840 St. Etienne was converted to a rifle in 1847. For rifle use with ling range sight.
It is speculated that a number of these converted rifles made it to the South during the Civil War.

Cal. 58. NSN.

Utilizing 1855 Rifle Musket parts taken from the Harpers Ferry Arsenal, the Confederacy manufactured this long arm at the Richmond Armory in Richmond, VA. Similar in design to the 1861 Springfield, the Richmond Musket utilized a different rear sight, brass buttplate and a brass forend cap.  Total produced unknown. 40" round 58 caliber rifled barrel with cleanout screw on bolster. Front sight doubles as lug for angular bayonet. Two leaf rear sight. Three barrel bands retained with barrel band retaining springs. Iron ramrod with tulip shaped end. Iron mountings with brass buttplate and forend cap. Early production muskets used a lockplate with a distinctive full humpback design. Later production muskets used a lockplate with a lower humpback design. Metal parts finished bright except for the lock, which was casehardened. Walnut stock. The lockplates were made from forgings and dies that were intended to use the Maynard tape primer used on the U.S. Model 1855 rifled musket. The unused Maynard system caused the distinctive "humpback" design. The Richmond Armory Percussion Rifled-Musket was produced in larger numbers than all other Confederate longarms.

Cal. 58. NSN. 30” bbl, 46” overall length.
There is a lot of controversy over this particular configuration. Articles have been written that 30” bbl do not exist as Confederate usage, but they do turn up, though probably not made during the Civil War, but as postwar configurations for militia or commercial use. Generally, stocks associated with these guns are not Richmond, as is with this gun. However, this gun does have a correct brass Richmond butt-plate and nose cap. Gun has two iron bands, and an iron trigger-guard w/ two iron slings. Attached to slings is an orig linen sling often attributed to the Confederacy. Lock is genuine Richmond lock-plate, “C.S. / RICHMOND” forward of hammer. Rear of hammer lock is dated 1863.

C.S. Richmond Musket

There were probably no more than a couple of hundred made.  They were very early production and the most distinguishing feature is the Richmond style low hump lock and hammer.  When Fayetteville first began production, they had trouble getting their lock making capacity up to speed.  The first locks were provided by the Richmond Arsenal and stamped at Fayetteville.  Unlike the Type I, which is largely made up of left over Harper's Ferry parts, including barrels, stocks, etc.,  the Type II is largely made of Fayetteville produced parts and will generally show signs of using some minor Harper's Ferry parts, ie. nose caps, hammers, etc.

Confederate Fayetteville Type III Rifle
The Fayetteville Arsenal was operated by 70 former employees of the Harpers Ferry Arsenal until its complete destruction by Sherman's Army in 1865.  Fayetteville was plagued by lack of barrel stock throughout production but in spite of the supply problems, they managed to produce a high quality rifle with fit and finish that was equal to any rifle produced by the U.S. at the time.  Total production is estimated between 8000 to 9500 weapons produced from 1862 to 1865 with slightly more than half believed to be the Type IV.

Type IV


Cook & Brothers 2 Band Rifle

Cook n'Brothers is a Southern copy of an Enfield musketoon.  Manufactured in Athens, GA

Kerr Sharpshooter CSA Rifle

Cal. .58 SN 19.
This is among the rarest of all Confederate carbines; and is one of only two known marked examples. John Murphy in his definitive reference, “Confederate Carbines and Musketoons”, shows a nearly identical weapon and states it is the only specimen known. This makes the second specimen known as this gun was unknown to Murphy prior to his passing. Bbl is 24” long; gun is 39-1/4” long overall. Bbl is marked near breech, “PRO. / FCH”. Bottom of bbl has a single digit, either a “3” or “5”, stamped near the breech. Bbl is retained by two brass bands; both rear and front bands are spring retained, with the front being a double-strap band. Lock-plate is stamped forward of the hammer, “COLUMBUS ARMORY” identically to excavated lock SN 7 illustrated in Murphy’s book, as is the other complete gun. Internally this lock and hammer are both numbered “19”. No other SNs were found on this gun. This is your only chance to ever buy a Columbus Armory marked carbine; as the only other example now resides in the Greensboro Public Museum.

Target Rifle made by Thomas Turner of Birmingham, England.

It has superb wood with sharp checkering, about 95% of the original blue on the barrel, liberal traces of case color on the lock, butt plate, nose cap, etc.  The lockplate, hammer, trigger guard, breech, etc. are beautifully and delicately engraved.  The bore is bright and sharp as a tack.  This gun is very unusual in that it has a 28 inch barrel and was originally made in this configuration.  It has not been shortened.  Thomas Turner produced .451 rifles made their way to the United States during the Civil War.  Some were probably even used by the South.  He was a competitor of Whitworth and about the best gunsmith England produced during the 1860's.

BARNETT P56 CAVALRY CARBINE  Commercial P58 Barnett Carbine Here

Barnett had a contract to supply guns to the South and this one sure looks like it was there.  It is a gorgeous, untouched gun has a nice original brown patina with no significant pitting.  The wood is solid, sound with only minor dents and abrasions and appears to retain its original finish, which is developing a light rub.  The lock is marked Barnett London, in front of the hammer.  Behind the hammer, it is marked Crown over Tower.  The left rear of the barrel has London proofing.  It has a 21" barrel and its original rod, missing the links.  There is a mark on the left side of the stock, opposite the lockplate, which is either the stock maker's mark or an inspectors mark.  The name is J. Crocker.  It still has rifling with three broad lands and grooves and is in .57 caliber.  The carbine bar and ring are intact.

Confederate Mobile Depot Alteration Shotgun

At the beginning of the Civil War, Mobile and its shipping facilities were guarded by Alabama State Troops.  These state troops were eventually turned over to Confederate central government command.  A part of the deal for the turnover was that the State of Alabama would arm two regiments that had shown up in Mobile without arms (the 21st & 22nd Alabama Infantries).  To arm these units, the Adjutant General of the State of Alabama beefed up the facilities at the Mobile Depot, which ingeniously adapted single and double barreled shotguns for military use.  The guns were the result of an earlier effort by the Governor of Alabama to procure arms.  He had authorized the sheriffs of the various counties and state agents to purchase all available sporting weapons throughout the state.  The guns that were altered at the Mobile Depot are drawn from these state stores that were so purchased.  The Mobile Depot applied a 5" double lug bayonet attachment to the right side of both single barrel and double barrel shotguns.  They manufactured a bayonet of this double lug system and scabbard to fit the shotgun.

Cal. 58. SN 67 (SN found inside lock).
There are two types of Davis & Bozeman Carbines. One has standard carbine features. The other type made from rejected rifle bbls, but otherwise has standard carbine characteristics. This gun was made from a rejected rifle bbl, and is almost identical to another Davis & Bozeman Carbine SN 268 pictured in John Murphy’s definitive reference, Confederate Carbines and Musketoons. Bbl is 24-1/16”. Gun is 39-3/4” long overall. Bbl is rifled with three lands and grooves. Left side of the bbl near the breech is stamped, “ALA 1864”. Bbl exhibits fixed slotted front & rear sight. Bottom of bbl & breech tang have Roman numeral “LVIII”, cut into each. A large number “44” is also stamped on bottom of bbl near breech. Bbl is retained by two brass bands, the rear being spring retained; the front is pin retained and retains an iron sling swivel. Lock is marked forward of the hammer “D&B / Ala”. Rear of hammer is marked, “1864”. Trigger-guard is brass 2-pc construction and retains orig iron sling swivel. Brass butt-plate has a small “s” stamped on top. Ramrod is iron with tulip shaped end. This is a very rare gun. No doubt there are fewer than ten Davis & Bozeman Carbines of any configuration. We know of only five examples and at least 3 of these are in museums. This is a fine example of this gun and another example may never be offered again.

Cal. .58 SN 57.
Two varieties of the BilHarz & Hall Carbine exist; one with a brass nose cap, and one with a pewter nose cap. Earlier guns with lower SNs such as this have brass nose caps. These carbines closely resemble model 1855 Springfield carbines. Bbl on this gun measures 22-1/8” and overall 37-5/8”. Top left side of bbl near the breech is marked, “CSA / P”. Bottom of bbl is stamped ”D 57”. The “7” is distinct. First number is hard to read due to pitting and is possibly a “3”. Bbl ramrod assembly is attached with a swivel. Iron butt-plate and trigger-guard are nearly identical to the model 1855 Springfield. Iron lock-plate is internally marked with a “D 37” and a “D 34”. This gun appears to be all orig and authentic.

Cal. 52. NSN.
This gun was made in Danville, Virginia by Read & Watson. Read & Watson converted breech loading Hall carbines to muzzle-loaders. This well made gun exhibits a 32-1/2” bbl and is 48-1/2” overall length. Read & Watson’s alteration required replacement of the orig Hall breech block with a 1-pc brass breech which had a iron breech plug into which a percussion cone was placed. Stock is totally of Read & Watson’s design and construction. Two types of Read & Watson are known, the only difference is the size of the brass breech or receiver. Stock is pieced under middle band which is a typical feature of this gun. SNs for these guns are internal. Gun was not taken apart to ascertain number. This gun appears orig and authentic in all major parts and components. Externally the gun is totally unmarked with exception of a latter owner of guns initials and date of 1873. This is a very good example of a scarcely offered Confederate gun.

. T.W. Cofer of Portsmouth, VA was a well-known Confederate gun dealer and manufacturer of one of the most famous Confederate revolvers. He also imported guns in his shop before the war. Gun listed here is a back action lock small cal. oct bbl rifle with “T.W. Cofer & Co.” etched on lock. “Portsmouth, VA” is stamped in a sgl die on barrel flat behind rear sight. Gun exhibits 31-1/4” bbl with 48” overall length. Mountings are all iron with exception of a later added German silver squirrel partially inlaid into left side of butt-stock in cheek piece. Only a couple ofhtese are known ro exist.

Cal. 58. NSN.
Bbl 33” 48-3/4” overall. Bbl retained by two brass bands and brass nose cap. Gun has brass butt-plate, brass trigger-guard, and iron tulip tipped ramrod. Bbl has no external markings but two cryptic letter markings on bottom of bbl. Lock is marked forward of hammer, “DIXON/NELSON & CO / C.S”. Rear of hammer is marked, “ALA / 1864.

Cal. 58. SN 833.
32-1/2” bbl is marked “NC/P” approx. 1” behind fixed iron rear sight, brass blade front sight and iron bayonet lug with small #8 stamped. Correct straight iron butt plate and brass trigger guard, bands and nose cap. Trumpet end iron ramrod is cut a bit short and is not threaded. Lockplate is marked rear of hammer “C. S.” and forward of hammer “M. J. & G./NC”. Three initials, “CMF” are carved upside down in butt stock on right side, probably denoting soldier who carried this scarce Confederate rifle. Opposite lock, in wood, is “M. J. & G.” cartouche, though it is only partially discernable. The bayonet lug appears to have been moved back about ½”, while the old slot is still visible, but this appears orig to use. SN 833 appears on inside lockplate and bottom of bbl tang. Bbl bands are both marked with “U” on top. This is a good example of a scarce gun in above average condition for pattern.


The first model Murray's produced (Type I) was very closely copied from US M1841 "Mississippi Rifle", which was so successfully employed by Jefferson Davis's men in the Mexican War. It was a rifle well loved & familiar to Southerners, & very serviceable. All Murray's were .58 cal., however, rather than the .54 cal. Mississippi's. Type I's have spring retained brass barrel bands, w/front band being of double strap variety as seen on many earlier US muskets. Flat rear band has a forward sideplate, which accommodates the lockplate screws, rather than individual escutcheons holding such screws; this is M1841 style also. Type II Murray rifle shows a change in brass barrel bands & sideplates. Type II rifles & carbines have US M1855-style flat brass barrel bands, single, & w/out forward projecting bottom lip. They have individual brass escutcheons which accommodate lockplate bolts.