WINCHESTER MODEL G-30 EXPERIMENTAL RIFLE.
Cal. 30. SN 67.
|The G30R was based on a design conceived by Jonathan
E. Browning in 1930 (Below), which could
be adapted with equal ease to both civilian and military use. Although
it was generally believed that the Munich Agreement had forestalled the
possibility of war in Europe, the management of the Winchester company
wanted to have a design for a military rifle in hand should the need for
it arise. Consequently, from June 7. 1938, through May 1939, an extensive
series of tests were carried out using the original Browning samples (Plates
258 and 259) and those subsequently made by the company. During the testing
of the first sample, a number of problems were encountered in the design.
These were subsequently summarized in a report prepared
by William C. Roemer, on April 10, 1940, as follows:
In July 1939, the annular piston designed by Browning
was replaced by a more conventional version situated beneath the barrel
(Below), and most of the problems noted by Roemer were immediately corrected.
In recognition that its stocks of U.S. M1 rifles were insufficient to meet potential requirements, the United States Army asked for bids on a 65,000-unit contract in mid-September. The Winchester company, having gained valuable experience in the manufacture of that model due to the educational contract of earlier that year, was able to submit the lowest bid, and on Oct. 10, 1939 was awarded the contract.
The company also stepped up work on the G30R, producing a second revised sample in December. When subjected to a sand test, however, the bolt stuck fast in the wedge-shaped stopping surface located in the rear of the receiver, totally disabling the rifle'. In consequence of this, it was decided that it was necessary to redesign the rifle's lockwork.
The designer selected to perform this task was David Marsh
Williams, who the company had hired under a one-year contract on Julv 1.
1939. Williams immediately fitted a short stroke piston to the sample (below).
which corrected some of the operating problems. the design of Browning's
bolt, however, still made cycling erratic, so in late 1910, it was abandoned'.
Williams then substituted a bolt of his own configuration.
This bolt was of tubular form with two locking lugs located at its forward
end and an angled slot cut in the bolt's body. The purpose of this slot
was to receive a projection milled on the tip of the operating rod. When
the rod moved rearward under pressure front the piston, the projection
sliding in the bolt slot caused the bolt to rotate out of its locked position
before any rearward movement of the bolt could begin. The delay which thereby
occurred in the unlocking of the action allowed the pressure generated
by the combustion of the cartridge powder to dissipate before the action
began to cycle. This arrangement allowed the modified Browning-Williams
rifle to be chambered for any high-pressure cartridge by the simple expedient
of modifying the bolt slot length to adjust the bolt rotation to the point
that the bolt could be safely opened. The versatility of the Williams'
design was recognized by the company's management, and a series of samples
(below) were authorized for field trials and endurance tests in January